[Note: This Glossary
was compiled by Karen R. Todorov, Social Studies
Education Consultant for the Michigan Department of Education.
See Michigan Department of Education “Helping teachers teach
and children learn” http://www.michigan.gov/documents/10-02Glossary_48851_7.pdf
Absolute Advantage –
exists in the production of a good when one country can produce a good more
efficiently than another country.
Absolute Location –
the exact position on the globe using addresses, grid coordinates, or the
imaginary lines of longitude and latitude
Acid rain –
a type of polluted rain, produced when acids from smokestacks combine with
water vapor that can harm lakes, forests, and human health
to change or tailor something to fit, humans change their environment or their
way of doing something to fit their current needs or goals.
information provided to encourage the purchase or use of a good, service or
idea by emphasizing its positive qualities.
Affirmative Action –
to recruit or hire members of underrepresented groups, such as women and
the process of choosing which needs will be satisfied
and how much of our resources we will use to satisfy them.
Alternative Courses of
Action – the
other choice that could have been made which are inherent in every decision.
the height of a thing above sea level or above the earth's surface.
Amendment (to the U.S.
Constitution) – changes in, or additions to, a
constitution. Proposed by a
two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress or at the request of two-thirds of
the state legislatures. Ratified by approval of
three-fourths of the states.
American Influence on
Foreign Countries – as
the most powerful nation and economy in the world the United States affects the cultures,
economies, and politics of nations worldwide. When other nations seek access to
and become part of the lucrative U.S. market their own economies,
cultures and politics are affected by American culture and values.
System/Presidential System – a system of government in which
the legislative and executive branches operate independently of each other and
in which power is distributed through a system of checks and balances.
a general pardon granted by a government, especially for political offenses.
a face clock with hands.
Absence of any form of political authority. A state of
lawlessness, confusion, and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of
Ancient history –
history of people living from the beginnings of human society through 300 CE
policy of separation of the races enforced by law
Appellate court -
a court authorized to hear appeals
the distribution of legislative seats according to population
settlement of a dispute by the decision of a judge, umpire or committee.
Articles of Confederation –
The first document created to govern the newly formed government after the
American Revolution. It created a “firm league of friendship” among the 13
original states. The states agreed to send delegates to a Confederation Congress.
Each state had one vote in Congress.
things made by humans, and used by archaeologists and historians to recreate a
picture of the past.
right to control or direct the actions of others, legitimized by law, morality,
custom, or consent.
Bar Graph –
a means of displaying data using the length of “bars” to represent the values
of the data being displayed.
the direct trading of goods and services between people without the use of
opinions about what is considered to be true and trustworthy.
something of value, a benefit can be tangible like a gift or money, or
intangible like satisfaction.
an unfair act or policy resulting from prejudice.
intolerance and prejudice; obstinate and unreasoning attachment to one's own
belief and opinions, with narrow-minded intolerance of beliefs opposed to them
a narrative account of a person’s life.
Bill of Rights –
first ten amendments to the Constitution ratified in 1791, these amendments
limit governmental power and protect basic rights and liberties of individuals.
a major regional or global biotic community, such as a grassland or desert,
characterized chiefly by the dominant forms of plant life and prevailing
supported by members of two parties, especially two major political parties
the limit or extent within which a system exists or functions, including a
social group, at state, or physical feature.
Branches of Government –
established in the U.S. Constitution to divide the power of government between
legislative, executive and judicial branches
Brown v. Board of Education
(1954) – Supreme Court case that declared that
“separate-but-equal” educational facilities are inherently unequal and
therefore a violation of equal protection of the law guaranteed by the
a table showing the days, weeks, and months of at least one specific year.
the overall effort a candidate makes to win votes through speeches, press
conferences, and advertising.
activities planned to achieve a certain goal as in electing a candidate or
establishing a public policy.
Campaign finance reforms –
how money is collected and spent in campaigns for public office is subject to
rules. Many groups believe that a major change in those rules is necessary to
limit the amount of money that any person or group can donate to a political
campaign with the goal being to limit the influence any person or group will
have after the election to influence the office holder they helped to elect.
cash, goods, natural resources, or human skills that are used to produce
Capital Equipment –
manufactured equipment used in the production of goods and services.
Capital Resources –
goods made by people and used to produce other goods and services (also called
economic system characterized by the following: private property ownership
exists; individuals and companies are allowed to compete for their own economic
gain; and free market forces determine the prices of goods and services.
explicit forms of collusion concerned with product price, output, service, or
currency and coins
A meeting, especially a preliminary meeting, of persons belonging to a party,
to nominate candidates for public office, or to select delegates to a
nominating convention, or to confer regarding measures of party policy; a
political primary meeting.
an official, usually periodic enumeration of a population, often including the
collection of related demographic information. As required by the Constitution,
the census of the population of the United States takes place every 10
one hundred years.
Certificates of Deposit (CD)
- these offer a guaranteed rate of
interest for a specified term, usually one year. The institution generally
requires that you keep your money in the account until the term ends. The
institution may pay a higher rate of interest than for a savings or other
account. Typically, the longer the term, the higher the interest
a special quality or feature; whatever distinguishes one person or thing from
Checking Accounts –
deposits in a checking account give individuals quick, convenient, and
immediate access to money in their account. Money is accessed through the
writing of a check, which transfers money to the person or business named. Some
checking accounts pay interest (NOW accounts), but most do not institutions may
impose fees on checking accounts, along with a charge for the checks.
Checks and Balances –
constitutional mechanisms that authorize each branch of government to share
powers with the other branches and thereby check their activities.
For example, the president may veto legislation passed by Congress, the Senate
must confirm major executive appointments, and the courts may declare acts of
a series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been
used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as
extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone
depletion and have been banned for many uses.
map – maps that display data by using colors or shading to
represent distinct categories of qualities or quantities.
what someone must make when faced with two or more alternative uses for a
resource, also called an economic choice.
Chronological order –
arranged in order of time occurrence.
Circle Graph –
used to display data that adds up to 100%
Circular Flow –
the flow of money from businesses to households and government, from households
to businesses and government, and from government to households and business.
and conduct – actions expected of citizens in
their daily conduct such as upholding the values and principles of the
Constitution, obeying the law, voting and participating in the civic life of
status of being a member of a nation, one who owes allegiance to the government
and is entitled to its protection and to political rights.
City Council –
the equivalent of the legislative branch for a city.
A self-governing city, often with surrounding lands it governs.
Civil court –
the place where disputes between people, or between people and the government
the type of culture and society developed by a particular nation or region or
in a particular epoch: The ways in which people organize themselves.
Civil Rights –
protections and privileges given to all U.S. citizens by the Constitution
and Bill of rights
the temperature, precipitation, winds, etc. that characterize a region. Long-term trends in weather elements and atmospheric conditions.
Coin – money issued by a government in the form of a
metal disk. Colony - A group of emigrants or their descendants who settle in a
distant territory but remain subject to or closely associated with the parent
Command Economies –
an economy in which the government makes the decisions about what, where, how
and how much is produced and finally who will get what is produced.
Common Good –
involves individual citizens having the commitment and motivation (that they
accept as their obligation) to promote the welfare of the community (even if
they must sacrifice their own time, personal preferences or money) to work
together with other members for the greater benefit of all.
the final state of social evolution according to Marx, in which the state has
withered away and economic goods are distributed according to need.
the exchange of thoughts messages and or information.
a group of people living in the same locality and under the same government.
Community Characteristic –
a feature that helps to define, describe, or
distinguish one community from another.
Comparative advantage –
the principle that states that a country benefits from specializing in the
production of goods at which it is relatively most efficient.
an examination of two or more objects, ideas, locations, concepts, or
individuals to discover the similarities and differences.
Compass rose –
orientation graphic that indicates the direction north on a map or globe
Competitive Markets –
markets with many buyers and sellers where not one person or firm controls
prices or the number of products for sale.
Complementary Goods –
goods that are jointly consumed. The consumption of one enhances the
consumption of the other (examples hot dogs/hotdog buns; left shoe/right shoe;
snow skis and snow clothing).
Composite region –
a region that shares more than one characteristic or function e.g.,
Midwest-agricultural region, Midwest-industrial region, urban -industrial
Compromise of 1850 –
had four parts– first, California was allowed to enter the Union as a free
state; second, the rest of the Mexican Cession was divided into the territories
of New Mexico and Utah (in each territory, voters would decide the slavery
question according to popular sovereignty); third, the slave trade was ended in
Washington, D.C., the nation’s capitol (Congress, however, declared that it had
no power to ban the slave trade between slave states; fourth, a strict new
fugitive slave law was passed.
an open clash between two opposing groups, individuals, or nations regarding an
ideology or a course of action.
Conflict and cooperation –
a recurring theme of social studies that represents the opportunities for
people in communities, nations, regions or worldwide to engage in activities in
which they openly clash with one another while retaining the capacity at other
times to work together towards accomplishing common goals.
Conflicting viewpoint –
a position taken by one individual group, or nation, which is in opposition to
the position of another individual, group or nation.
a point reached in a negotiation where a general agreement of all or most of
the people consulted is achieved
the system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the nature,
functions, and limits of a government or another institution. The fundamental
law of the United States,
framed in 1787, ratified in 1789, and variously amended since then.
Constitutional guarantee –
the promises or assurances given to the people of the nation in their written
constitution, which cannot be taken away without the due process of law.
a customer who buys the products or services a business produces.
Consumer Credit –
ability to buy goods or services now and pay later by installment payments.
Consumer Goods –
items that are made for final consumption (i.e., not used by business to
produce other goods or services)
Consumer Spending –
purchase of consumer goods and services.
Contemporary factors –
something that belongs to the same time period as the event, which contributes
causally to the event, like the present efficiency and abundance in the
production of wheat in the United
States allows us to sell wheat to other
countries who need it.
one of seven large landmasses on the Earth, which separates the oceans
Core Democratic Values –
fundamental beliefs and constitutional principles outlined in the Declaration
of independence and/or the United States Constitution and other important
writings of the nation such as Supreme Court decisions.
an organization of people legally bound together by a charter to conduct some
type of business.
the total money, time and resources associated with a purchase or activity.
Costs of Production –
all resources used in producing goods and services, for which their owners
a sovereign nation.
the largest territorial division of a state.
Coup d’ etat
- the sudden overthrow of a government by usually a small
group of persons in or previously in positions of authority
Crimes against humanity –
actions that are agreed to be so universally abhorrent that they are determined
to be unacceptable by all people regardless of culture and for which people
seek to have the perpetrators punished on behalf of humanity.
Criminal court –
the place where cases are heard for those accused of breaking a law
Criminal procedure –
a set of established steps taken when the government is preparing a criminal
prosecution to bring a person accused of breaking a law to trial, which
includes due process for the accused.
Any of the military expeditions undertaken by European Christians in the 11th,
12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. Also, a vigorous concerted movement for a cause or against an
the values, beliefs and perceptions of the world that are learned and are
shared by members of a community or society, and which they use to interpret
experience and to generate behavior, and that are reflected in their own
Cultural diffusion –
the spread of linguistic or cultural practices or innovations (including ideas
and beliefs) within a culture or from one culture to another.
Cultural geography –
the study of how people use space and interact with their environment.
Cultural stability and
change – an important theme in social studies, particularly in
geography and history, which addresses how different societies maintain the
stability of their culture and how they deal with the inevitable difficulties
associated with change as a result of interactions with other cultures or
changes in prevailing values.
Cultural Relativism –
the idea that each culture’s features should be understood in terms of that
culture’s history, environment, values, and views of its people, and that it is
ethnocentric or biased, as well as uninformed, to judge another culture by the
standards of one’s own culture.
Ethnic Cleansing –
the removal or extermination of a racial or cultural group.
the systematic description of a particular culture based on
observation. (The person who does ethnography is called an
looking at the world from the perspective of one's own
the attitude or belief that the ways of one's own culture are the
or only proper ones. Other ways are therefore judged wrong or immoral,
one's cultural identity (NOT biological identity).
make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. Exchange
– giving one thing in return for some other thing.
Excise tax - A Federal or state tax imposed on the
manufacture and distribution of certain non-essential consumer goods.
Executive Branch –
carries out and enforces laws to protect individual rights and promote the
Executive Power –
power of the president governor or mayor to implement and enforce
to give reasons for why something happens
goods or services produced in one nation but sold to buyers in another nation.
Factors of Production –
resources used by businesses to produce goods and services; natural resources,
human capital, capital and entrepreneurship
anything pertaining to the national government, but not the state or local
Federal Courts -
Article III of the Constitution gives the federal courts jurisdiction—the
authority to hear and decide a case—only in certain specific areas. These are
cases that involve one of the following: The Constitution, federal laws, admiralty and
maritime laws, disputes in which the United
States government is involved, controversies between states,
controversies between citizens of different states, Disputes involving foreign
governments and United
States ambassadors, ministers, and consuls
serving in foreign countries.
Federal Judiciary –
nine members of the U.S. Supreme Court and approximately five hundred judges
appointed by the president and approved by the Senate for the federal courts
Federal Reserve System (the
Fed) – the central banking system in the United States.
It regulates money and banking in the United States.
power is shared between two sets of governmental institutions, those of the
states and those of the central or federal authorities, as stipulated by the
charges for services rendered.
Feudal system - Introduced
by William I -The Conqueror. In a feudal system the King owned all the land.
The King as his personal property kept one quarter, some was given to the
church and the rest was rented out. In this system a lord swears allegiance to
the king in return for protection. A lord took in serfs who paid homage to him
and took the same oath. This system would continue to the lower and lower
classes that would work for fiefs or land. The Feudal System lasted in England
until the Tudor period.
The use of obstructionist tactics, especially prolonged speechmaking, for the
purpose of delaying legislative action.
Fiscal Policy –
decisions by the President and Congress, usually relating to taxation and
government spending, with the goals of full employment, price stability, and
Five Themes of Geography –
- Location –
includes both absolute and relative. Absolute location: expressed in terms
of the latitude and longitude identifies a place’s exact location on the
location: describes where a place is in relation to other places.
- Place -
Particular city, village, or area with distinctive physical and human
characteristics that distinguishes it from other places.
- Human Environment/Interaction –
How people change their surroundings like clearing land to make farms; and
how people adapt to their environment like building homes with insulation
and central heating in cold climates.
- Movement –
the moving of people, ideas, information, and products around the world.
- Region – an area
with one or more common characteristics or features, which gives it a
measure of homogeneity and makes it different from surrounding areas.
any of various chemically inert compounds containing carbon and fluoride used
chiefly as lubricants and refrigerants and in making resins plastics. (see chlorofluorocarbons)
Foreign market -
when buyers and sellers from different countries make transactions, directly or
Foreign policy -
when dealing with other nations, the systematic collection of practices,
regulations, and rules of procedure and conduct followed by the Federal
Forensic Anthropology –
a special field within Physical Anthropology that uses knowledge of the human
skeleton to help crimes and other legal issues.
Forensic anthropologists, for example, have been working to identify the
skeletal traces recovered from the 9-11 disasters.
Forms of Taxation -
forms of taxation: taxes are charges imposed by the government on people or
property for public purposes. Taxes take different forms like the benefit
principle (gasoline taxes for road construction), progressive taxes, regressive
taxes, proportional taxes, direct taxes, indirect taxes, income taxes, sales
taxes, excise taxes (levied on a specific item), property taxes estate and gift
taxes, tariffs and social security tax.
Free Market Economy –
an economy in which individuals decide the economic questions in the market
being able to act without interference or control by another; right to believe
in what you want, right to choose own friends, and have own ideas and opinions,
to express own ideas in public, the right for people to meet in groups, the
right to have any lawful job or business.
Fundamentalism can be broadly defined as a strict and literal adherence to a
set of basic principles and specific beliefs. Although many, if not most forms
of fundamentalism are religious, by no means are all religious people
fundamentalists. The adherence to certain beliefs seen in fundamentalism is so
strong, that the presentation of evidence that contradicts these beliefs leads
to no reassessment of them, on the part of the fundamentalist.
the extermination of a cultural or racial group.
an integrated discipline that brings together the physical and human dimensions
of the world in the study of people, place, and environment focusing on the
earth’s surface and the processes that shape it, the relationships between
people and environments, and the connections between people and places.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) –
the Supreme Court ruled that in federal and state criminal cases involving
serious criminal cases involving serious crimes, the court must appoint a
lawyer to represent an accused person who cannot afford one. In 1972 the
Supreme Court extended the right to counsel even further. It ruled that an
accused person cannot be sent to jail for any offense unless he or she has
either been represented by counsel or voluntarily given up that right. This
ruling covers all cases that could involve imprisonment, no matter how minor
GIS global information
systems – a geographic database that contains information about
the distribution of physical and human characteristics of places or areas.
Good character –
the moral quality of one’s decisions and behavior that is generally accepted as
objects that can be held or touched that can satisfy people’s wants.
Refers to the many ways in which people are being drawn together not only by
their own movements but also through the flow of goods/services, capital, and
ideas/information. Globalization also includes the impact that increased human
interactions have on the natural environment.
Global warming –
the theory that Earth’s atmosphere is gradually warming due to the buildup of
carbon dioxide in the lower atmosphere caused by human activity such as the
burning of coal
the chief executive of a state government who is elected by the state’s voters.
an institution that determines and enforces a society’s laws. The size and
nature of a government varies according to the society it governs.
Government Regulation –
a rule, law, statute or ordinance, through which the government monitors the
use of wealth or property by individuals, groups or businesses.
Graphic Data –
information organized in a pictorial way like a chart, graph or map.
middle-latitude grasslands are located between the temperate forests and desert
biomes. Because of a semiarid climate, grasslands usually do not have tree
cover except along rivers. Wetter grasslands supporting taller grasses are
prairies and drier desert margin grassland regions are called steppes
Greenhouse effect –
the warming of the earth caused by the buildup of carbon dioxide in the lower
atmosphere, possibly as the result of human industrial activity
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
– the total dollar value of all final goods and services
produced in a country in a given year equals the total consumer, investment and
government spending, plus the value of exports minus the value of imports.
Gross National Product (GNP)
– is calculated by adjusting the GDP to include income
accruing to domestic residents as a result of investments abroad minus the
income earned in domestic markets accruing to foreigners abroad.
a place where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives and grows.
landform features that may have steep slopes but lower in elevation and
characterized by less local relief than a mountain
individual or family units.
Human Capital -
the people who perform the work in the production of goods and services and the
skills, which they have.
Human Characteristics of
Place – things that humans do to change the environment or
natural surroundings (e.g., bridges, roads, and buildings). Also
the language, culture, food and religions of a place.
Environment/Interaction – how people adapt their lives to
some environmental conditions; how people protect themselves from cold
climates; how people will change their natural environment.
Human Resources –
quantity and quality of human effort directed toward producing goods and
services (also called labor or human capital).
Human rights -
the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are
entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of
thought and expression, and equality before the law.
Hydrologic Cycle -
the continuous circulation of water from the oceans, ice sheets, lithosphere,
atmosphere, and all living things in the biosphere.
to recognize and name an object, person, or idea.
something, such as a thought or concept, that potentially or actually exists in
the mind as a product of mental activity, an opinion, conviction, or principle.
to name something
To enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native
goods and services that consumers in one country buy from producers in another
(also unalienable) rights that cannot be given or taken away.
factors that motivate and influence the behavior of households and businesses;
prices, profits, and losses act as incentives for participants to take action
in a market economy.
Indentured servitude –
a contract between two people where one party agrees to work without any or
minimal compensation to pay back money or an opportunity provided by the other
Originating and living or occurring naturally in an area or environment e.g.,
indigenous plants or the indigenous people of a country
Income Taxes –
paid by households and business firms on the income they receive.
Indian Removal Act (1830) –
Native Americans were forced to sign treaties agreeing to move west of the Mississippi.
Individual choice –
decisions made by people acting separately.
Individual Ownership –
a business owned and managed by one individual who assumes all risk of loss and
gets all the profit.
Individual Rights –
fundamental to American constitutional democracy is the belief that individuals
have certain basic rights that are not created by government but which
government should protect. These are the right to life, liberty, economic
freedom, and the pursuit of happiness. It is the purpose of government to
protect these rights, and it may not place unfair or unreasonable restraints on
their exercise. Many of these rights are enumerated in the Bill of Rights.
an increase in the general level of prices people pay for goods and services. A
popular measure of inflation is the consumer price index.
contrary to or violate; go beyond the proper or usual limits.
a newly introduced idea, invention or way of doing things that changes the
customs, practices, relationships, or behavioral patterns of importance in the
life of a community or society: the institutions of
marriage and the family. Established organizations or
foundations that reflect the culture and beliefs of a people
The bringing of people of different racial or ethnic groups into unrestricted
and equal association
people relying on each other in different places or in the same place for
ideas, goods, and services.
between or among nations; having to do with the relations between nations.
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) – an organization set up to lower trade barriers between
countries and to stabilize currencies, often by lending money to developing
International Trade –
the exchange of goods and services between or among nations.
an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious.
purchase of tangible assets, such as machines, factories, or inventories that
are used to produce goods and services for the purpose of making a profit.
Investments in Capital
Resources – business purchases of new plant and equipment.
Investment in Human
Resources – activities that increase the skills and knowledge of
Invisible hand –
term used by Adam Smith to describe the natural force that guides free market
capitalism through competition for scarce resources.
A monotheistic religion characterized by the acceptance of the doctrine of
submission to God and to Muhammad as the chief and last prophet of God.
A Muslim holy war or spiritual struggle against infidels (those who do not
believe in the doctrines of the Islamic faith)
Jim Crow Laws –
the systematic practice of discriminating against and segregating Black people,
especially as practiced in the American South from the end of Reconstruction to
the mid 20th century.
Judicial Branch –
the Branch of the Federal government responsible for interpreting laws. The
Supreme Court heads it. A major responsibility is to protect individual rights
and settle conflicts or disputes.
people should be treated fairly in the distribution of the benefits and burdens
of society, the correction of wrongs and injuries, and in the gathering of
information and making of decisions.
an explanation of the features, colors, or shading on a map or chart
the patterns and rules of relationship among people who are
or related to each other through shared descent from common ancestors
the physical and mental exertion that human beings put into production
Labor force –
those who are working or actively seeking work.
the shape, form, or nature of a specific physical feature of the earth’s
surface; e.g., plain, hill, valley, plateau, bay island
Land use -
the range of uses of Earth’s surface made by humans. Uses are classified as
urban, rural, agricultural, forested, etc.
a measure of distance north or south of the equator.
a set of rules, issued and enforced by a government
that binds every member of society.
Law of Demand –
if supply is held constant, an increase in demand leads to an increased market
price, while a decrease in demand leads to a decreased market price.
Law of diminishing returns -
a point beyond which the application of additional resources yields less than
proportional increases in output.
Law of diminishing marginal
utility - the principle that as additional units of a product are
consumed during a given time period, the additional satisfaction for the
Law of Supply –
if demand is held constant, an increase in supply leads to a decreased price,
while a decrease in supply leads to increased price.
a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.
according to the law; permitted by law; lawful
an explanatory description to the features on a map or chart
Legislative Branch –
passes laws to protect individual rights and promote the common good.
Libertarian party -
libertarians believe in complete liberty, free enterprise, and personal
responsibility without the constraints of government. www.lpty.org
– includes the freedom to believe what you want, freedom
to choose your own friends, and to have your own ideas and opinions, to express
your ideas in public, the right for people to meet in groups, and the right to
have any lawful job or business.
each citizen has the right to the protection of their life; individuals
right to life should be considered inviolable except in certain highly
restricted and extreme circumstances, such as the use of deadly force to
protect one’s own or others’ lives.
Limited Resources –
the condition of there not being enough resources to fulfill all wants and
Line graph –
a means of displaying data by connecting lines between dots representing the
values of a continuous variable.
the uppermost portion of the solid Earth, including soil, land, and geologic
where something is:
Location – the exact position on the globe using addresses, grid
coordinates, or the imaginary lines of longitude and latitude
Location - the location of a place or region in relation to other places
or regions (e.g., northwest of or downstream from).
the position of a point on Earth’s surface expressed as its angular distance,
east or west, from the prime meridian to 180°
the investment lost in a business when its expenses exceed its income
industry involved in cutting timber and selling it.
Major World Processes –
population growth, economic development, urbanization, resource use, international trade, global communication, and
Marbury v. Madison (1803) –
case in which the Supreme Court held that it had the power of judicial review
over acts of Congress.
the place where buyers and sellers come together to make transactions of goods
Market Economy –an
economic system based only on the interaction of market forces, such as supply
and demand. A true market economy is free of governmental influence, collusion
and other external interference, and buyers and sellers making exchanges
to come in to help settle a dispute; be a go between; act in order to bring
about an agreement between persons or sides.
Meeting of the Three Worlds –
the era of early North American history when the people of North America,
Europe, and Africa interact on the North
Melting pot –
Term was coined in the early 1900s by playwright Israel Zangwill
in his play The Melting Pot.
The term refers to the Zangwill’s theory that
immigrants to the United States
lose their unique national-ethnic identities upon their arrival in the United States
and become “Americans”.
one thousand years
a naturally occurring, homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite
chemical composition and characteristic crystalline structure, color, and
to move from one place to settle in another.
Miranda Rule –
an arresting officer’s requirements to inform criminal suspects of their rights
Mixed Economy –
an economy that combines elements of the traditional, market, and command economic
a set of assumptions and hypotheses that is a simplified description of
a system of government in which the head of state, usually a royal figure (king, queen) is a hereditary position
Monetary Policy –
the regulation of the money supply and interest rates by a central bank, such
as the Federal Reserve Board in the U.S., in order to control inflation and
a medium of exchange, a good that can be used to buy other goods and services.
Money Market Deposit
Accounts (MMDA) - An MMDA is an interest-bearing
account that allows you to write checks. It usually pays a higher rate of
interest than a checking or savings account. MMDAs
often require a higher minimum balance, and you are limited to only three
checks per month. Most institutions impose fees on MMDAs.
the moving of people, ideas, information and products around the world.
a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within
a society rather than in only a mainstream culture
Muslim also Moslem -
A believer in or adherent of Islam
North American Free Trade Agreement – the United
formed a major trading block in 1992 that removed tariffs and other barriers to
the creation of a free trade zone among the three countries.
in social studies narratives are stories or tales about events that identify
the people involved, describe the setting, and sequences the important events.
a culturally and politically unified group of people bound together by a strong
sense of shared values, institutions and cultural characteristics
National interests -
a perspective that puts the well-being of the nation before any other consideration
The belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than
collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization founded in 1948 to curb communist expansion.
There are nineteen member countries of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization. They are: Belgium,
Canada, Czech Republic,
Denmark, France, Germany,
Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Spain, Turkey, United
Kingdom, and United States.
Characteristics of Place – a description of “what is there
naturally,” the gifts of nature, such as water, minerals, land and timber.
Natural Resources –
anything from the natural environment that people use to meet their needs. They
are “gifts of nature” that are present without human intervention.
those things that everyone must have to survive.
to arrange for or bring about through conference, discussion, and compromise.
a non-governmental organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens'
group, which is organized on a local, national or international level. NGOs
perform a variety of services and humanitarian functions, bring citizens'
concerns to governments, monitor policies and encourage political participation
at the community level, e.g. the Red Cross.
Nonrenewable resource –
a finite resource that cannot be replaced once it is used e.g., petroleum,
Northwest Ordinance –
in 1787 Congress set up a government for the Northwest
Territory and outlawed slavery there. It also provided for the
vast region to be divided into three to five separate territories in the
The entire body of salt water that covers more than 70 percent of the earth's
surface and is separated by the continents; and whose principal divisions
include the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic oceans.
a government controlled by a small group to serve their own purposes.
the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is an international cartel of
thirteen nations designed to promote collective pricing of petroleum, unified
marketing policies, and regulation of petroleum extraction.
Cost – the next best alternative that must be given up when a
choice is made. Not all alternatives, just the next best choice.
the right to use something and to enjoy its benefits.
a gas formed from an interaction between oxygen and sunlight
Ozone Layer –
a region in the earth’s upper atmosphere that protects life beneath by
filtering out dangerous ultraviolet solar radiation
Parliamentary System –
a system of government in which power is concentrated in a legislature. The
legislature selects one of its members, usually called a prime minister, as the
nations’ principal leader and other legislative members deserve as the leader’s
A fervent, sometimes militant supporter or proponent of a party, cause,
faction, person, or idea
virtuous citizens display a devotion to their country in words and deeds,
including devotion to the fundamental values and principles upon which it
Per Capita Income –
the average income per person.
relatively stable pattern of behavior and thinking manifested in interactions
with self and others.
Personal Virtue –
moral excellence, the consistent practice of moral action and the abstinence
from immorality and vice
Physical Features –
natural characteristics of the earth’s surface such as land forms, climate,
winds, and ocean currents.
characteristics of place - the natural environment of a place
such as water, minerals, land, and timber.
Pie chart –
used to display data that adds up to 100%
a particular city, village, or area with distinctive physical and human
characteristics that distinguishes it from other places.
landform feature characterized by gentle slopes and minimum of local relief
landform features characterized by high elevation and gentle upland slopes
(e.g., the Grand Canyon area of the United States.
A formal declaration of the principles on which a group, such as a political
party, makes its appeal to the public.
One of the articles or ideas of a political platform
(1896) – the court ruled that segregation was legal so long as
facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
Political Freedom –
the right to participate freely in the political process choose and remove public
officials, to be governed under a rule of law; the right to a free flow of
information and ideas, open debate and right of assembly.
Popular sovereignty –
the citizens are collectively the sovereign of the state and hold the ultimate
authority over public officials and their policies.
the people who inhabit a political entity or region
a group of individuals which interbreed or exchange genes primarily with each
other, and thus share traits in common more than with members of other
populations. If a population becomes split, as from migration, so that one part
no longer interbreeds with the other, gradually each separated group could
accumulate changes not shared with the other and would thus develop or evolve
into distinctive populations.
Population density –
the number of individuals occupying an area derived from dividing the number of
people by the area they occupy (e.g., 2,000 people divided by ten square miles
– 200 people per square mile).
A political philosophy supporting the rights and power of the people in their
struggle against the privileged elite. In U.S. History the populist movement
first gains national importance in the presidential election of 1892. Agrarian
reform and issues regarding bimetallism are cornerstones of the movement.
introduction to a formal document that explains its purpose.
A judicial decision that may be used as a standard in subsequent similar cases:
a landmark decision that set a legal precedent.
holding unreasonable preconceived judgments or convictions especially
pertaining to irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group, race, or
/American Political System – a system of government in which the
legislative and executive branches operate independently of each other and in
which power in branches operate independently of each other and in which power
is distributed through a system of checks and balances.
the amounts of money that people pay in exchange for a unit of a particular
good or service.
Primary Source Documents –
original documents that help us learn about past people or events (e.g.,
letters, diaries, maps, drawings, laws, statutes,).
Primary Sources –
any document or artifacts that is direct evidence of historical events including clothing, furniture, homes, recordings, documents
the state of being free from unsanctioned intrusion.
Private Goods –
goods that are privately owned and used to benefit only their owners.
Private Life –
concerns the personal life of the individual such as being with family and
friends or practicing ones own religious beliefs.
a series of gradual changes bringing about a result.
the series of changes by which something develops (major world processes are
population growth, economic development, urbanization, resource use,
international trade, global communication, and environmental impact.)
people who use resources to make goods and services.
the act of growing, making or manufacturing goods and services.
the amount of output per unit of input.
the positive gain from an investment or business operation after subtracting
the systematic spreading of ideas or beliefs reflecting the views and interests
of those advocating a doctrine or cause.
that which is legally owned by an individual or entity.
Property taxes –
taxes paid by households and businesses on land and buildings.
Public Goods –
goods and services that are provided by the government. They are often too
expensive or not practical to be obtained by individuals.
Public Policy –
decisions and laws that a government makes about an area of public concern to
guide the actions of government.
Public policy issue (should
questions) – an issue about which reasonable people will disagree.
Questions of public policy require individuals in authority to make decisions
or create policies that will affect the public lives of all the citizens in a
community or nation.
Public Service –
service to local, state, or national communities through appointed or elected
Pull factors –
in migration theory, the social, political, economic, and environmental attractions of new areas that draw people away from their
Pursuit of Happiness –
the right of citizens in the American constitutional democracy to attempt to
attain – “to pursue” –happiness in their own way, so long as they do not infringe
upon rights of others
Push factors –
in migration theory, the social, political, economic and environmental forces
that drive people from their previous location to search for new ones.
commonly used to refer to regional human populations assumed to be
significantly genetically different from each other, though in the same
species. Anthropologists hold that this view ignores the vast amount of genetic
diversity within any population and the minimal importance of differences
between populations, so that race is used to refer to ethnic group (cultural)
differences as though they had a biological basis. Recent DNA research shows
that the amount of DNA variation within any population is more than 16 times
greater than DNA differences between populations.
an irrational belief in an advocacy of the superiority of a given group,
people, or nation
the number of representatives in Congress is fixed. The Supreme Court has
established that all election districts must be equal or nearly equal in
population. States which must make changes as a result of new census figures
(situations where new districts are drawn or seats lost---reapportioning) often
experience rancorous debate by the political parties. Reapportionment plans can
affect the ease with which a party can get its candidates elected.
A partial refund following a purchase.
mutual exchange, especially an exchange of special privileges in regard to
trade between two countries
period after the Civil War when the south was re-built; also, the Federal
program to rebuild it.
The submission of a proposed public measure or actual statute to a direct
movement to improve unsatisfactory conditions.
an area that shares common characteristics. Regions can be physical regions;
land formations and climate; human traits that make up a region such as
language, religion history and political boundaries.
rules and laws the government makes to control the economy. In laissez-faire
economic systems there is no regulation of the economy. In the United States,
the government participates in the economy to assure the accomplishment of the
economic goals of government.
Relative Location –
describes where a place is in relation to other places.
Relative Price –
the price of one good or service compared to the prices of others goods and
A personal or institutionalized system grounded in such belief and worship.
Religious Liberty –
there shall be full freedom of conscience for people of all faiths or none.
Religious liberty is considered to be a natural inalienable right that must
always be beyond the power of the state to confer or remove. Religious liberty
includes the right to freely practice any religion or no religion without
governmental coercion or control.
Representative Democracy –
a system of government in which the people choose political leaders to make
policy decisions on their behalf.
a republic is a sovereign state in which all segments of society are
enfranchised and in which the state's power is constitutionally limited. A
republic is distinguished from a true democracy in that the republic operates
through a representative assembly chosen by the citizenry, while in a democracy
directly in governmental affairs.
all natural, human and man-made aids to the production of goods and services. Also called productive resources.
Rule of Law –
principle that every member of a society, even a ruler, must follow the law.
areas of low population density
Sales Taxes –
taxes paid by the consumer on the goods and services people buy.
Savings Accounts –
with savings accounts you can make withdrawals, although the number you can
make each month may be limited. Savings accounts usually earn interest.
Institutions may assess various fees on savings accounts, such as minimum
on maps the relationship or ratio between a linear measurement on a map and the
corresponding distance on Earth’s surface. For example, the scale 1:1,000,000
means one unit (mile or kilometer) on the map and represents 1,000,000 similar
units on Earth’s surface. Also refers to the size of places or regions being
the condition that occurs because people’s wants and needs are unlimited, while
the resources needed to produce goods and services to meet these wants and
needs are limited.
Secondary Sources –
summaries and interpretations of original artifacts.
The policy or practice of separating people of different races, classes, or
ethnic groups, as in schools, housing, and public or commercial facilities,
especially as a form of discrimination
Separation of Powers –
the distribution of political power among the branches of government, giving
each branch a particular set of responsibilities.
an intangible act, which satisfies the wants or needs of consumers such as
medical advice and education.
the situation resulting when the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity
supplied of a good, service, or resource.
the specific place where something is located, including its physical setting
(e.g., on a floodplain).
the general location of something in relation to other places or features of a
larger region (e.g., in the center of a groups of cities).
Sketch Map –
the representation of all or part of the surface location on a flat piece of
paper drawn from memory.
the institution that supports the holding of human beings as property
the situation in which a nation produces a narrower range of goods and services
than they consume/specialization in mass production occurs when a worker repeats
a single operation over and over.
any one of various systems in which the means of producing goods are owned by
the community or the government rather than by private individuals with all
people sharing in the work and the goods produced.
Social organization -
the rule-governed relationships of individuals and
within a society that holds it together.
unconsolidated material found at the surface of Earth, which is divided into
layers (or horizons) characterized by the accumulation or loss of organic and
inorganic compounds. Soil types and depths vary greatly over Earth’s surface,
and are very much influenced by climate, organisms, rock type, local relief,
time, and human activity.
the person, body, or state in which independent and supreme authority is
vested; such as, in a monarchy, a king, queen, or emperor---in the United States,
Stock Market –
a financial market which is organized to buy and sell stocks through exchanges,
over-the-counter, and electronically
a distinctive set of standards and behavior patterns by
a group within a larger society operates.
a payment made by government to encourage some activity.
Substitute goods –
goods that can be used interchangeably. The consumption of one replaces the
need to consume the other.
the quantities of a good or service that a firm is willing and able to make
available for sale at different prices (economic concept of supply and demand).
the situation resulting when the quantity supplied exceeds that quantity
demanded of a good, service, or resource.
a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a
whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.
Taking a stand –
supporting one side of an issue of public policy
tax on foreign goods brought into a country. An official schedule of taxes
imposed by a government on imports or exports
required payments of money made to governments by households and business
a set of principle that can be used to make inferences about the world.
Three Basic Economic
Questions – 1.) What goods and services will be
produced and in what quantities? 2.) How will they be produced? 3.) For whom
will they be produced?
a graphic means of displaying historical events in chronological order
a disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior
country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of the
lives of the people
trading goods and services with people for other goods and services or for
money. When people exchange voluntarily, they expect to be better off as a
giving up one thing to get something else.
Traditional Economy –
an economy in which the three basic questions are answered by custom, or how
things have been done in the past. Roles in traditional economies are
gender based and often inherited. Barter holds an important position.
A formal agreement between two or more states, as in reference to terms of
peace or trade.
the examination before a court of the facts or law in a court case
- a subversive group that supports the enemy and engages
in espionage or sabotage; an enemy in your midst; a large hollow wooden figure
of a horse (filled with Greek soldiers) left by the Greeks outside Troy during the Trojan
A statement proven to be or accepted as true; in a democracy the principle that
the government and citizens should not lie.
one who exercises absolute power without legal authority
(also inalienable) rights that cannot be given or taken away; that cannot be
transferred to another
the situation in which people are willing and able to work at current wages but
do not have jobs.
a state government with a single legislative chamber
an area characterized as a city or town where the population density is greater
than in the surrounding area and is acknowledged as a major cultural, service,
and production location in a region
a process in which there is an increase in the percentage of people
living/working in cities and towns
beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment
(either for or against something); those things that are considered to be most
important by a person or group
One who takes or advocates the taking of law enforcement into one's own hands.
people who work without monetary compensation to help others in their family,
schools, communities, state, nation, and the world.
Voluntary Exchanges –
choosing to give one thing in exchange for another without being coerced
things that people desire.
an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries
atmospheric conditions as regards to temperature, moisture, winds
productive land areas that are flooded for at least part of the year
World Processes –
population growth, economic development, urbanization, resource use,
international trade, global communication, and environmental impact.
World Trade Organization
(WTO) - An international agency which encourages trade between
member nations, administers global trade agreements
and resolves disputes when they arise.