- Unit 4: Cellular Energetics - Objectives
You should be able to:
- Define the term metabolism and differentiate between anabolic and catabolic reactions.
- Define energy and differentiate between kinetic and potential energy.
- Describe how oxidation and reduction are interrelated in chemical reactions.
- State the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and their consequences for living organisms.
- Explain the energy requirements of endergonic and exergonic reactions.
- Describe the importance of activation energy, its relationship to reaction rate and how it can be altered.
- Describe the structure and function of enzymes and their importance to the life of a cell.
Diagram an enzyme reaction using the terms enzyme, substrate, enzyme substrate complex, and product.
- Identify the factors that affect the performance of enzymes and discuss how enzyme activity is regulated in a cell.
- Understand the structure of ATP and how it is able to drive biological reactions.
- Describe how a general biochemical pathway evolves over time.
- Describe the general function of cellular respiration.
- Write the summary equation for aerobic cellular respiration.
- Explain the energy significance of oxygen atoms, hydrogen atoms, protons, and electrons in biological redox reactions.
- Briefly describe the role of coenzymes in enzyme activity, particularly the hydrogen acceptors NAD+ and FAD.
- Outline the steps in the release of energy from a chocolate bar.
- Describe glycolysis in general terms, including the molecules that it begins and ends with, and its net versus total ATP production.
- Describe fermentation in terms of electron acceptors, ATP yield and end products.
- Explain the process of anaerobic respiration as it occurs in human muscle. Define the term oxygen debt and explain what happens in muscles during prolonged strenuous activity.
- Analyze the reactions in the 2 stages of the Kreb's cycle in general terms.
- Describe chemiosmosis and explain the importance of the electron transport chain in the production of ATP.
- Explain the difference between aerobic respiration and anaerobic cellular respiration and compare the efficiency of these two processes.
- Understand how fats and proteins are metabolized and compare the number of ATP's produced in the degradation of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
- Define photosynthesis and discuss its importance to living organisms. State the overall chemical equation for photosynthesis and explain why water is included on both sides.
- Understand how light energy is packaged and list the wavelengths of light involved in photosynthesis.
- Describe the structure and function of the chlorophylls and other pigment molecules utilized during photosynthesis.
- Describe cyclic photophosphorylation in terms of the organisms in which it occurs, its energy capture molecules, and its energy yield in ATP's.
- Understand how photosystem I and photosystem II in plants produce ATP and NADH in the light reactions.
- Describe the dark reaction in plants including the significance of ATP, NADH and the ultimate products of the reaction.
- Explain how RuBP and glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate fit into the Calvin cycle.
- Identify the locations for the light and dark reactions within a plant chloroplast.
- Understand how C4 and CAM photosynthesis combat excessive photorespiration.